Rule 7. Pleadings Allowed; Form of Motions and Other Papers

(b) Motions and Other Papers.
    (1) In General. A request for a court order must be made by motion. The motion must:
        (A) be in writing unless made during a hearing or trial;
        (B) state with particularity the grounds for seeking the order; and
        (C) state the relief sought.
    (2) Form. The rules governing captions and other matters of form in pleadings apply to motions and other papers.

Rule 8. General Rules of Pleading

(b) Defenses; Admissions and Denials.
    (1) In General. In responding to a pleading, a party must:
        (A) state in short and plain terms its defenses to each claim asserted against it; and
        (B) admit or deny the allegations asserted against it by an opposing party.
    (2) Denials — Responding to the Substance. A denial must fairly respond to the substance of the allegation.
    (3) General and Specific Denials. A party that intends in good faith to deny all the allegations of a pleading — including the jurisdictional
    grounds — may do so by a general denial. A party that does not intend to deny all the allegations must either specifically deny
    designated allegations or generally deny all except those specifically admitted.
    (4) Denying Part of an Allegation. A party that intends in good faith to deny only part of an allegation must admit the part that is true and
    deny the rest.
    (5) Lacking Knowledge or Information. A party that lacks knowledge or information sufficient to form a belief about the truth of an allegation
    must so state, and the statement has the effect of a denial.
    (6) Effect of Failing to Deny. An allegation — other than one relating to the amount of damages — is admitted if a responsive pleading
    is required and the allegation is not denied. If a responsive pleading is not required, an allegation is considered denied or avoided.

(c) Affirmative Defenses.
    (1) In General. In responding to a pleading, a party must affirmatively state any avoidance or affirmative defense, including:
        • accord and satisfaction;
        • arbitration and award;
        • assumption of risk;
        • contributory negligence;
        • duress;
        • estoppel;
        • failure of consideration;
        • fraud;
        • illegality;
        • injury by fellow servant;
        • laches;
        • license;
        • payment;
        • release;
        • res judicata;
        • statute of frauds;
        • statute of limitations; and
        • waiver.

    (2) Mistaken Designation. If a party mistakenly designates a defense as a counterclaim, or a counterclaim as a defense, the court must, if
    justice requires, treat the pleading as though it were correctly designated, and may impose terms for doing so.

Rule 12. Defenses and Objections: When and How Presented; Motion for Judgment on the Pleadings; Consolidating
Motions; Waiving Defenses; Pretrial Hearing

(a) Time to Serve a Responsive Pleading.
(1) In General.
Unless another time is specified by this rule or a federal statute, the time for serving a responsive pleading is as follows:

(A) A defendant must serve an answer:

    (i) within 21 days after being served with the summons and complaint; or

    (ii) if it has timely waived service under Rule 4(d), within 60 days after the request for a waiver was sent...

(B) A party must serve an answer to a counterclaim or crossclaim within 21 days after being served with the pleading that states the counterclaim or crossclaim.

(C) A party must serve a reply to an answer within 21 days after being served with an order to reply, unless the order specifies a different time.

. . .

(4) Effect of a Motion.

Unless the court sets a different time, serving a motion under this rule alters these periods as follows:

(A) if the court denies the motion or postpones its disposition until trial, the responsive pleading must be served within 14 days after notice of the court’s action; or

(B) if the court grants a motion for a more definite statement, the responsive pleading must be served within 14 days after the more definite statement is served.

(b) How to Present Defenses.  Every defense to a claim for relief in any pleading must be asserted in the responsive pleading if one is required. But a
party may assert the following defenses by motion:
    (1) lack of subject-matter jurisdiction;
    (2) lack of personal jurisdiction;
    (3) improper venue;
    (4) insufficient process;
    (5) insufficient service of process;
    (6) failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted; and
    (7) failure to join a party under Rule 19.
...If a pleading sets out a claim for relief that does not require a responsive pleading, an opposing party may assert at trial any defense to that claim. No defense or objection is waived by joining it with one or more other defenses or objections in a responsive pleading or in a motion.

. . .

(e) Motion for a More Definite Statement.  A party may move for a more definite statement of a pleading to which a responsive pleading is allowed but which
is so vague or ambiguous that the party cannot reasonably prepare a response. The motion must be made before filing a responsive pleading and must
point out the defects complained of and the details desired. If the court orders a more definite statement and the order is not obeyed within 14 days after
notice of the order or within the time the court sets, the court may strike the pleading or issue any other appropriate order.

(f) Motion to Strike.  The court may strike from a pleading an insufficient defense or any redundant, immaterial, impertinent, or scandalous matter. The
court may act:
    (1) on its own; or
    (2) on motion made by a party either before responding to the pleading or, if a response is not allowed, within 21 days after being served with
    the pleading.

(g) Joining Motions.
    (1) Right to Join. A motion under this rule may be joined with any other motion allowed by this rule.
    (2) Limitation on Further Motions. Except as provided in Rule 12(h)(2) or (3), a party that makes a motion under this rule must not make another motion under this rule raising a defense or objection that was available to the party but omitted from its earlier motion.

(h) Waiving and Preserving Certain Defenses.
    (1) When Some Are Waived. A party waives any defense listed in Rule 12(b)(2)–(5) by:
        (A) omitting it from a motion in the circumstances described in Rule 12(g)(2); or
        (B) failing to either:
            (i) make it by motion under this rule; or
            (ii) include it in a responsive pleading or in an amendment allowed by Rule 15(a)(1) as a matter of course.
    (2) When to Raise Others. Failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted, to join a person required by Rule 19(b), or to state a legal defense to a claim may be raised:
        (A) in any pleading allowed or ordered under Rule 7(a);
        (B) by a motion under Rule 12(c); or
        (C) at trial.
    (3) Lack of Subject-Matter Jurisdiction. If the court determines at any time that it lacks subject-matter jurisdiction, the court must dismiss the action.

Rule 55. Default; Default Judgment

(a) Entering a Default.  When a party against whom a judgment for affirmative relief is sought has failed to plead or otherwise defend, and that failure is shown
by affidavit or otherwise, the clerk must enter the party’s default.